There are a few possibilities using various browser extensions or Chrome remote debugging in Developer Tools. See information at the bottom for these.
The quickest and easiest solution, however, is based on using adb:
adb forward tcp:9222 localabstract:chrome_devtools_remote wget -O tabs.json http://localhost:9222/json/list adb forward --remove tcp:9222
For details on how the above works, read this (and the pages linked to therein).
Although I have not tried any of these, here is a list of browser extensions that promise to do the job:
The Chrome remote debugging feature is yet an other alternative:
Enable USB debugging on phone / tablet and connect to desktop computer using a USB cable. Start Chrome and load the inspect devices URL. Then follow the instructions given here. More information on Chrome remote debugging is given by the Google developer docs.